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IN THIS EPISODE, YOU WILL STUDY…
GRAMMAR AND EXPRESSIONS
agreeing to do something for someone
talking about past customs: used to; would
ought to (awta)
used to (yoosta)
How do Americans feel about the free-enterprise system?
Do women and men in your country have equal job opportunities?
FAO Schwarz: a famous toy store in New York Cit
approve: to say or write that someone’s work is go to say that something is OK
sketches: simple drawings, without much detail
client: a customer
Susan is a vice-president of a toy company. Today, many American women are managers in the business world. More and more, women are holding stronger position in large companies and in the professions, as doctors and lawyers, for example. In fact, in the U.S. today, almost half of all the people in the professions are women.
In your country, is there equal opportunity for both women and men in business?
production staff. A staff is a group of workers, or employees. A production staff works together to make something.
Will do. = Sure, I’ll do it. This is an informal way to agree to do something.
models: small copies of objects. Before something is produced in large numbers, a model is usually made model cars
Right. = I’ll do it. This is another informal way to agree to do something. People also say Right to agree with someone’s idea.
ought to: should. The informal pronunciation is awta.
What for? = Why?
the simple things in life. This phrase refers to simple things to enjoy, such as a good conversation, a beautiful sky, or a long walk.
Smell the flowers. = Take time to enjoy yourself.
the twelfth: the 12th day of the month. To refer to dates, use ordinal numbers: first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, etc.
film maker: a person who makes movies. Alfred Hitchcock was a famous film maker.
eleven thirty. You may also say half-past eleven instead of eleven thirty.
twelve forty-five: You may also say a quarter to one instead of twelve forty-five.
I have a feeling . . . = I think . ..
reception room: a room in an office for receiving visitors or clients as they arrive
Businesses in the United States are usually owned by people, not by the government. This is called free enterprise. Most Americans respect the idea of competition in business. Businesses must compete against each other for profits, the money that they earn. Many Americans believe that the free-enterprise system encourages equal opportunity. Part of the American dream is the idea that every citizen has a, chance to own a business and become rich by working hard.
- Does the free-enterprise system exist in your country?
- What does being successful mean to you?
There is more than one way to refer to clock time. Study these examples. Then complete the exercises below.
A. There is Susan’s schedule for tomorrow afternoon:
Read the following paragraph. Then copy it on the lines below, but write each of the times in a different way. The first sentence is given. At two fifteen, Susan will meet with Mrs. Zaskey. She wiII go to a production meeting at two forty-five. Susan just remember to call the art department, however, at
three twenty. At three thirty, she will meet with Sam to discuss a new toy idea. She wants to call Harry at three forty-five to ask about his plans for the weekend. At three fifty-five, she has to review the budget for next year.
At a Quarter after two, Susan will meet with Mrs. Zaskey.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
B. Now imagine that Mrs. Zaskey will be five minutes late tomorrow. All of Susan’s appointments will be five minutes later than they are on the schedule. Rewrite your paragraph, but make each time five minutes later. The first sentence is given.
At twenty after two (or two twenty), Susan will meet with Mrs. Zaskey.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
picked (these flowers) out: chose (these flowers). Pick out is a two-word verb. You can also say, picked out these flowers.
shy: not comfortable with other people; timid
used to. Used to refers to past customs—repeated actions or conditions in the past. The informal pronunciation is yoosta.
embarrassing: making you feel uncomfortable about yourself, often because you did something foolish
enter: to write down. You use enter for business records, lists, and diaries.
the Biltmore: a hotel in Manhattan
What’ll it be? = What would you like? Waiters sometimes ask this question.
a big hit: very popular
lemonade: a cold drink made of lemon juice, water, and sugar
would go: used to go. Like used to, would refers to past customs. With would, you must refer to a specific time period and frequency.
There you go. = This is for you. When putting food or drinks on a table, a waiter might also say Here you are.
ice-cold: very cold
girl talk: conversations between girls or women
«USED TO» AND «WOULD»
Study these rules about used to and would. Then complete the exercise below.
Use used to + a simple verb to refer to past customs. Used to may refer to a condition or to a repeated event. EXAMPLES: Susan used to be shy. (a condition)
Michelle’s parents used to take her on a ferryboat when they went to Fire Island every summer, (a repeated event)
With used to, it is not necessary to refer to a specific time period or frequency.
EXAMPLE: Michelle’s parents used to take her on a ferryboat.
Use would + a simple verb to refer to past customs only when you refer to repeated even is during a specific time period at a specific frequency. Do not use would to refer to past conditions.
EXAMPLE: When Susan was a young girl, her mother would give her piano lessons on Tuesday afternoons. (specific time period: When Susan was a young girl specific frequency: on Tuesday afternoons)
Note that you may always use used to instead of would to refer to past customs.
EXAMPLE: When Susan was a young girl, her mother used to give her piano lessons on Tuesday afternoons.
Read the sentence with used to below each picture. In which sentence can you use would instead of used to? Circle 1, 2, or 3.
Michelle’s feelings change in Act II. At the beginning of the act, she feels shy. Later, she feels comfortable. Read the sentences at the left. Write the letter of each sentence in the correct place on the time line to show the order of events at the seaport in Act 2. The first answer is given.
It’s so nice out. = The weather is so beautiful Here, out means «outside.»
fill in for me: to take my place. To fill in for someone is to do someone’s job for a short period of time.
He can answer any questions. = If there are questions, he can answer them.
Good for you. = I’m glad to hear it; congratulations!
The South Street Seaport and Central Park are two of New York City’s tourist attractions. About 17 million tourists visit these places and other sites in the city each year. Central Park, in the center of Manhattan, is one of the largest public parks in the United States.
- Which tourist attractions are popular in your city or town ?
- Where might you go to «smell the flowers»?
SMELL THE FLOWERS
Both Sam and Harry thought that Susan should «smell the flowers»—take time to enjoy herself. Complete the conversations below the pictures. Choose the correct phrases from the box.
Use the clues to complete this crossword puzzle.
1. Money earned by a business
7. Time to meet
8. Write down in an appointment book
10. An informal way to agree to do something (2 words)
12. Please wait in the _____ room.
2. _____-enterprise system
3. List of appointments
4. Business customer
7. Say you are satisfied with someone’s work
9. Build a _____ before making the final product
11. Can you _____ in for me tomorrow?